An Integrated Circuit Embodiments What Is Called ________ Technology

September 11, 2023
David Sunnyside

An integrated circuit embodies what is called ________ technology. It is a small, flat chip of semiconductor material that holds many components — transistors, resistors, capacitors and diodes, among others — all in one place.

ICs are the building blocks of most electronic devices, from computers and mobile phones to televisions and CD players. They are also found in automobiles and spacecraft. They can be categorized in a number of ways, including their function, speed and size.

The IC is the result of technological advances that allow engineers to pack hundreds, and sometimes millions, of transistors onto a piece of silicon no larger than a human fingernail. Its invention has transformed the electronics industry.

It was originally invented in 1958 by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor. They independently discovered the technique of etching very thin paths of metal directly on the surface of a semiconductor device that would act as wires.

These tiny, complex circuits are made from tiny, individual parts — or “die” — that are packed into a package and then wired together. They are fabricated in spotless laboratory environments called clean rooms where the air is scrupulously filtered and employees must wear protective clothing. The resulting devices can be extremely delicate and expensive, making it impractical to produce them on a large scale.

ICs are typically marked with a label that includes four common sections, a manufacturer’s name or logo, part number, a production batch and serial number, and a four-digit date code to identify the manufacturing date. This information is useful for troubleshooting if a chip fails to work as expected.

David Sunnyside
Co-founder of Urban Splatter • Digital Marketer • Engineer • Meditator
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