The market-and-technology framework is an alternative to the binary question of product-market fit. It aims to capture all the activities that go into creating and delivering your products and services. By doing this, it can help you understand how to improve your margin — that is, the proportion of value created relative to the cost of those activities.
When Sean Ellis, author of Hacking Growth, worked at Xobni, they used a set of questions to gauge customer satisfaction. The results could then be used to quantitatively track growth and determine the state of product-market fit. These questions were largely independently derived by folks at various social gaming companies and other tech start-ups in the early days of the web.
For non-technical people, it might be confusing to hear conversations about a “tech stack” or “framework”. A tech stack is the technologies that are used to develop applications, and a framework is a software architecture that guides development processes and makes them more efficient. For example, JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a technology, while React is a framework that changes how a web application is developed. Here’s a good article that discusses the difference between technology and framework.