Which of the following statements best explains how transportation technology advanced the industrial revolution?
The Industrial Revolution brought economic growth, but also many social changes. Many Americans moved from the country to cities for jobs, and railroads allowed goods to be transported across the country quickly and cheaply. These new developments led to the formation of large companies, such as the steel industry dominated by Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie used his enormous wealth to promote philanthropy in American communities.
A number of technological innovations helped fuel this rapid industrialization, including the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney and steam power. These advancements made it possible for the textile factories of New England to be supplied with cotton from southern America and for cloth to be sent back to New England from factories in Great Britain. This reverse triangle trade fueled the growing economy and helped transform many towns and cities.
This expansion of business created many new opportunities for middle-class families, which allowed them to improve their living standards. However, it also caused a number of social problems such as class conflict and the separation of the public and private spheres.
This industrialization accelerated as the nation continued to grow, which in turn fueled a second industrial revolution that peaked between 1870 and 1914. To support this boom, the government instituted high tariffs to protect American industries from foreign competition and granted land to railroad companies to encourage development. In addition, the military was employed to forcibly remove Native Americans from western land that farmers and mining companies desired.