Why Are Bacteria Used in Recombinant DNA Technology?

September 11, 2023
David Sunnyside

The recombinant dna technology is revolutionizing the medical field by producing vital proteins needed for treating patients with lethal diseases. These proteins can be made in microorganisms, plants, and animals to make medicinal drugs that cure diseases. The recombinant DNA is also used in agriculture to increase crop yields and resistance against herbicide, insect, fungus, and disease. It also improves plant growth and ripening.

The technique is based on the fact that bacteria have plasmids with DNA that can be easily combined with other DNA from other organisms. This process involves splicing two DNA molecules from different organisms to create a single molecule of recombinant DNA. First, a restriction enzyme is used to cut the native DNA into pieces with specific sequences of bases. Then, the plasmid DNA is combined with the foreign gene sequence using an enzyme called DNA ligase. The ligase attaches the sticky ends of the DNA fragments to each other and joins them together. This creates recombinant DNA that would not have been possible naturally.

This recombinant DNA is then transferred into a host organism, such as bacteria or a mammal, and multiplied to produce large quantities of the desired protein. There are several ways to do this, but the most common is to use a viral vector, such as retrovirus or adenovirus. These viruses transfer genes into the host cells very quickly and accurately.

However, these viruses can be harmful to the host cells and cause severe side effects in some cases. Another method is to use a nonviral system that uses naked DNA to enter the host cells. This method is less expensive and causes fewer side effects, but it takes longer to produce the recombinant protein.

David Sunnyside
Co-founder of Urban Splatter • Digital Marketer • Engineer • Meditator
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